Research on Disruptive Innovation

To begin this post, let me first start by stating, WOW!  I was completely overwhelmed by the amount of information and research that has been done and posted online about technology trends in the Horizon reports, the Meeker Internet Trend report, and the ECAR reports over K-12 education, higher education, healthcare, the stock market, and global technology.  I’ve broken this post down by report with some support of other articles, either for clarification or extra reinforcement of a concept or technology.  My interest is in 1:1 and mobile technology.  In the Meeker Internet Trends report and the ECAR reports, I did not find that 1:1 or mobile technology was making a big impact, yet.  However, in the K-12 Horizon Reports 1:1 initiatives and mobile technology was mentioned quite frequently.  Take a look at the highlights of each report.

Meeker Internet Trends

This report focuses on the technology industry in general.  I found that the majority of the information did not apply to me as a K-12 teacher, but it was extremely interesting.  Here are the top fun facts that I found intriguing from the Meeker Report.

  • The number of smartphone users has slowed some, but is still growing while the number of tablet users has skyrocketed over past technologies like the PC.
  • Cybersecurity findings were that more than 95% of networks have been compromised and that the number of directed attacks will increase as the number of mobile users grow.
  • The app industry has evolved. We use apps to upload, share, find, watch TV and videos, and stream music.

Educause Center for Applied Research (ECAR)

The ECAR reports compile findings from undergraduate students across the world.  I did like the information from the ECAR reports more than the Meeker report simply because it was more focused on education.  It still wasn’t directed at K-12 education, but I could see where and how some of the technologies and innovations could begin in the elementary, middle, and high school career of students.

  • In the 2012 ECAR report, students saw the line between tablets and laptops beginning to distort. 85% of students saw laptops as important to their academic success.  Students say that knowledge and understanding of basic technologies has the greatest impact on their academic success.  They also feel that training and development is more important than new or better technology.  Students expect their instructors to use technology to engage them in the learning process and that a blended learning environment best supports their learning.  Students also want access to their academic progress and course material on their mobile devices.
  • Next, in the 2013 report, students are beginning to recognize technology’s value, but need guidance when using it for academics. Examples of this are course management systems, online course content, and synchronous discussions.  Students still prefer blended learning and are starting to discover MOOCs.  Educause (2015) states that a MOOC is a massive open online course that is used for “delivering learning content online to any person who wants to take a course, with no limit on attendance.”  Students are ready to use their mobile devices in their learning, and are looking to their professors and institutions for opportunities and encouragement to do so.  College students want to keep their social and academic lives separate.  Although undergrads own 2 to 3 internet capable devices, in class use of smartphones and tablets is not common.  Students report using a smartphone in class to look up information, to take a picture of information, to record their instructors, to participate in in-class activities, and to access digital resources.
  • Finally, in the 2014 report, students continue to support a blended learning environment like in the 2012 and 2013 reports. Students still want to use their mobile devices for academics, but find there is not yet common use of tablets or smartphones in the classroom.  This could be because both faculty and students are concerned about technology being a distraction in the classroom.

Horizon Reports

I found the most useful information with the 6 Horizon Reports because they were created for K-12 technology.  With each report, I will list the Time-to-Adoption Horizons, Key Trends, and Critical/Significant Challenges.  The Time-to-Adoption Horizons are timelines of when researchers believe a technology will make a disruption in the educational field.  I found it interesting how many of the TTAs stay on the list for many years past when researchers believe they will make way in K-12 education.  Key Trends propel technology planning and decision-making.  The Challenges started out as “Critical” in 2010 and became “Significant” in 2012.  I believe the reason for this change in terminology is the negative connotation of the word critical.  Significant makes the challenge sound important and not so serious.


  • TTAs: 1 year or less for cloud computing and collaborative environments. 2 to 3 years for game based learning and mobiles.  4 to 5 years for augmented reality and flexible displays.
  • Key Trends: Informational technologies impact how people work, play, learn, socialize, and collaborative.  There is more interest in non-formal ways of education like online learning and independent study.
  • Critical Challenges: Learning that does not happen in the classroom is not considered valuable and is most time unacknowledged. Many people related to education believe that there must be reform, but can’t agree on how a new model should look.


  • TTAs: 1 year or less for cloud computing and mobiles. 2 to 3 years for game based learning and open content.  4 to 5 years for learning analytics and personal learning environments.
  • Key Trends: Our roles as educators is being challenged by the abundance of resources on the internet. The value of innovation and creativity is beginning to be noticed.  Technology still impacts the way we work, play, collaborate, communicate, and succeed, and people expect to do that whenever and wherever.
  • Critical Challenges: There is one direct quote that stuck out to me “Digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking.”  (Johnson, Adams, & Haywood, 2011.)


  • TTAs: 1 year or less for mobile devices and apps. 2 to 3 years for game based learning and personal learning environments. 4 to 5 years for augmented reality and natural user interfaces.
  • Key Trends: BYOD gains popularity because the cost of personal technology has gone down. A renewed interest in challenge-based, active learning has come back.  Technology once again affects the way we work, collaborate, communicate, and succeed.
  • Significant Challenges: K-12 educators must address the need for blending of formal and informal learning.  Real life learning experiences are not occurring enough and are undervalued.


  • TTAs: 1 year or less for cloud computing and mobile learning. 2 to 3 years for learning analytics and open content.  4 to 5 years for 3D printing and virtual and remote labs.
  • Key Trends: Social media is a game changer.  More people are using it to interact, present ideas and information, and communicate.  Educators must revisit our roles because of the availability of resources from the internet. BYOD is becoming more and more prevalent.
  • Significant Challenges: Teachers are limiting new technologies in education.  Professional development needs to be valued and integrated into everyday life at schools.  MOOCs are stimulating new models of education and challenging traditional models of education.  K-12 must continue to address blended learning.  Teachers are not using digital medias as ways of formative assessment.


  • TTAs: 1 year of less for BYOD and cloud computing. 2 to 3 years for games/gamification and learning analytics. 4 to 5 years for the Internet of Things and wearable technology.
  • Key Trends: Expectations for teachers are evolving rapidly. Teachers should be using more open educational resources and rethinking how schools work.
  • Significant Challenges: The newest challenge I could find was keeping student data safe.


  • TTAs: 1 year or less for BYOD and makerspaces. 2 to 3 years for 3D printing and adaptive learning technologies.  4 to 5 years for digital badges and wearable technology.
  • Key Trends: There is a rise in STEAM learning which shifted slightly from STEM learning when it added an arts and humanities model.  There should still be and increased use of blended learning and collaborative learning approaches.  Students will shift from consumers to creators.
  • Significant Challenges: Teachers must participate in more genuine professional development as their role shifts to more of a virtual facilitator.  Authentic learning experiences like apprenticeships must be more prevalent and valued.  More and more people are beginning to understand that personalized learning is a difficult task.

Mobile Technology

When I look at the reports and how it applies to my plan, I see mobiles, mobile technology, BYOD, etc mentioned numerous times.  Challenges stated in the Horizon reports can begin to be won when utilizing 1:1 technology.  In an online article, a teacher states that “Using a highly engaging tool such as the iPad to reinforce the basic, formative skills already taught through direct instruction is a teacher’s best friend. The key to learning is engagement.” (Marcinek, 2012).  Vali states that “…technology continues to disrupt learning…” and “Innovations like tablet-based tutoring can enable two-way conversations and increase collaboration, giving students the best of both worlds in a changing education environment.”  There are concerns about movement, books, and manipulatives that have arisen when researching 1:1 in an elementary setting.  This quote from Pullen (2012) best states what any educator can argue when researching a new tool, “1:1 is all about students having ubiquitous access to technology when it is beneficial; it certainly does not mean that students will use technology for every single minute of their classroom experience.”  Cleaver (2015) also quotes an elementary teacher when referring to laptops in the elementary classroom “The laptops “didn’t replace me or become the full instruction for the day,” says Rahn, “they were an additional learning tool.”  As with any teaching tool, technology is not used for every teachable moment, but only when learning can be presented in a way that’s meaningful and applicable.


Bichsel, Jacqueline & Dahlstrom, Eden. (2014, October). ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2014. Retrieved from

Cleaver, Samantha. (2015). 10 Rules for a Successful One-to-One Classroom. Retrieved from

Dahlstrom, Eden. (2012, September). ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2012. Retrieved from

Dahlstrom, E., Dziuban, C., & Walker, J.D. (2013, September). ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2013. Retrieved from

Educause. (2015). What is a MOOC? Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Smith, R., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2010). 2010 Horizon Report: K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Haywood, K. (2011). The NMC Horizon Report: 2011 K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). NMC Horizon Report: 2012 K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada V., Freeman, A., & Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2014). NMC Horizon Report: 2014 K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition. Retrieved from

Lunden, Ingrid. (2014, May 28). Here’s Mary Meeker’s Big Deck On Key Internet Trends. Retrieved from

Marcinek, Andrew. (2012, October 31). Teacher Experience and Expectations for the 1:1 Elementary Classroom. Retrieved from

Pullen, Mark. (2012, January 5). Pros & Cons: Is Elementary Too Early for 1:1 Technology? Retrieved from

Vali, Raj. (2015, January 28). Five ways mobile technology is transforming education. Retrieved from


One thought on “Research on Disruptive Innovation

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s